History Const. Test History Constitution Test

Question Answer
The framers of the Constitution allowed the people to vote directly for senators and president. false
The Constitution is the first and oldest written Constitution in the world. true
Slaves counted as 3/5ths of a person for Representation but paid the same taxes as free men. false
The small states strongly supported the Virginia Plan. false
Shay's Rebellion had to be quelled by military force. true
George Washington refused to become dictator and monarch over the country. true
The Continental Dollar was the only currency under the Confederation government. false
The federal government gave the land in the Northwest Territory to settlers. false
The Confederation Government was too weak to honor obligations under the Treaty of Paris. true
George Washington was the first president elected under the Constitution. true
Confederation was run by a unicameral Congress that elected and controlled the executive. true
The Constitution was ratified in the midst of the American Revolution. false
In the original Constitution, who was elected directly by the people? House of Representatives
Which was NOT a provision of the trade agreement reached at Constitutional Convention Which was NOT a provision of the trade agreement reached at Constitutional Convention
What unicameral plan did the small states support in the Constitutional Convention? New Jersey Plan
What bicameral plan did the large states support at the Constitutional Convention? Virginia Plan
What two factions opposed each other over the issue of representation in Congress? large states vs. small states
Which of these issues did not require major debate in the Constitutional Convention? Which of these issues did not require major debate in the Constitutional Convention?
Whose ideas provided much of the framework for the Constitution? James Madison
What was the most important accomplishment of the Annapolis Convention? call a NEW convention fix the weaknesses of Confederation
What caused Shays' Rebellion? unrest over defaulted farm loans
What caused the Newburgh Conspiracy? What caused the Newburgh Conspiracy?
How many people were require to live in a territory before it could be accepted as a state? How many people were require to live in a territory before it could be accepted as a state?
How much was each acre sold for in the Northwest Territory? $1
How were townships in the Northwest supposed to use the proceeds from the sale of section 16? schools
Which of the following principles was most strongly supported by the Articles of Confederation? unicameral
Why did the colonists create a weak confederation? each colony was jealous of its power
What was America's single greatest contribution to political thought? Constitution
The Indians did not understand the concept of private property. true
What was the "revolution of 1800"? political victory of the Republicans candidates
What president said, "Science is my passion, politics my duty."? Thomas Jefferson
Second Continental Congress Voted to draw up a charter for joining the colonies into confederation; John Dickinson of Pennsylvania and a committee wrote the Articles of Confederation; Congress adopted AoC; by 1871, all 13 states approved Article
League of States the states agreed to loose confederation/friendship; according to AoC, all states retained sovereignty, freedom, & independence; unicameral legislature; each state elected 2-7 reps; Article XI invited Canada to join on an equal basis simply upon request
Articles of Confederation articles reserved to the states every "power, jurisdiction and right" which was not "expressly delegated" to Congress; power to tax was reserved for states; Congress begged states for money
How did Central Government acquire funds under AoC? loans from other nations, sale of public lands on the frontier; profits from the government-owned post office
Important Legislation under AoC legislation required 9 of 13 states to approval for: declaring war, approving treaties and coining money; Amendments to the Articles required 13 states to approve
Chief Executive under AoC chosen by legislature and was completely under its control; President of Congress was powerless; three officials (Superintendent of Finance, Secretary of War and Secretary of Foreign Affairs) handled most administrative duties
1st President under AoC Peyton Randolph (5 Sept. 1774 – 22 Oct. 1774)
Treaty of Parris Confederation forced England to recognize the American independence; US was to restore the seized property of loyalists; US was to allow British subjects to recover debts owed them
Western Lands under AoC some states feared the western lands would be claimed by already existing states thus creating super powerful states; states relinquished their claims creating the Northwest Territory
Ordinance of 1784 Thomas Jefferson proposed creating 10 states out of NW territory; each would share equal status w/ other states; Jefferson proposed banning slavery in the region; he also proposed giving the land to settlers instead of selling it; never went into effect
Land Ordinance of 1785 revised the previous land ordinance; left out the tricky political issues; concentrated on settlement of the area; divided the new lands into orderly townships for sale and development; Each town contained 36 lots measuring 1 sq. mile
NW Ordinance 1787 concentrated government; NW territory was to be divided into at least 3 states but no more than 5; stages to becoming states
1st Stage of Becoming a State Fed. gov. pushed for people to settle the area; land sold at a very low price; modified martial law; governor was a high ranking military officer; held executive and legislative power, but Supreme Court was chosen to hand the judicial part
2nd Stage of Becoming a State 5000 citizens; territorial legislature established; Bicameral legislature; each country elected 2 people to represent the country at the legislature; legislature elected 10, 5 were be approved by congress to serve as coucils
Final Stage of Becoming a State 60000 citizens; draw up a state constitution' can be admitted into the Union; the newly admitted state would have equal status; Republican form of government
Failures of the Confederation – Financial Weakness no means to raise revenue so gov. always broke; hard money (gold and silver) was scarce in US; Paper money was printed by gov (Continental dollars); each state could print its own currency
Failures of the Confederation – Foreign Weakness foreign powers realized that by playing the states against one another they could manipulate any treaty; financial and military weakness left the US at the mercy of foreign navies
Failures of the Confederation – Domestic Weakness existent of 14 different currencies create economic confusion; each state had a tariff and they were all very different; states argue over boundaries' states argued over trade
Newburgh Conspiracy of 1783 congress couldnt pay salaries and pensions;a group of army officers decided to force the gov. to pay; some wanted other concessions (establish new gov. under a king, making Washington king)
Shay's Rebellion 1786 in Massachusetts; Daniel Shays (Veteran of Rev.; Farmer's champion; led rebellion of farmers who faced losing farms because of a depression; armed farmers marched against court; made militia respond & spend $530k; only Virginia paid
Constitution Convention met in Pennsylvania State House; James Madison (Virginia) provided framework for Constitution; great minds of Rev. were present; 1/2 of them had fought in Rev.; 39 served at previous congresses; diverse group
Annapolis Convention was not well attended; only 5 states sent representatives
Virginia Plan proposed that sovereignty be vested in the people and not the states; representation in Congress based a state’s population; favored by large states
New Jersey Plan would have primarily strengthened Articles by giving Congress the ability to raise revenues and would have kept a unicameral legislature chosen by state legislatures; favored by smaller states; each state’s representation in the Congress would be equal
Great Compromise This settled the Virginia/NJ Debate by creating a 2 house legislature (bicameral) with the House representation based on population and Senate being equal
Checks & Balances The principle of checks and balances thwarts such an accumulation of power by establishing a balance of power among the three branches.
The Bill of Rights It was a list of amendments done to the Constitution that were made to protect the rights of individuals.
What roles were on Washington's Cabinet? Secretary of State, Treasury, War and the Attorney General
Federalists supported the constitution; wanted a strong, central national government; wanted prevent another revolution; wanted a bicameral legislature; NE
Anti-Federalists opposed ratifying the Constitution; anted unicameral legislature; West
Outcome between Federalists and Anti-Federalists Federalists got the Constitution that they wanted, but the Anti-Federalists got the Bill of Rights
The Whiskey Rebellion Alexander Hamilton, George Washington’s Secretary of the Treasury, created a tax for whiskey throughout America, which angered citizens and caused a revolt.
The XYZ Affair This was a diplomatic affair between France and the U.S. that became an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.
The Alien & Sedition Acts This was a set of laws signed by President Adams after the conflict with France. It made opposition to the government illegal and made it harder for immigrants to become citizens.
President of Philadelphia Convention George Washington
Father of the Constitution James Madison
Connecticut Compromiser Roger Sherman; an influential man who helped pass the Connecticut Compromise that made it so that smaller states still had an important role in government; was one of two men who signed all three documents proposed at the convention
Federalism power is divided among the states and the national government
Separation of Powers power was divided vertically through federalism and horizontally through separation of powers among the three branches of government
Popular Sovereignty all political power rests with the people.
Limited Government gov’t may only do what the people give it the authority to do
Judicial Review power of the Court to determine constitutionality of a gov’t action
Electoral college: President is elected through the indirect means; Each state has a number of electors equal to the state’s representation in Congress; Candidate with the majority of the votes in each state receives the electoral votes from that state
Who was George Washington's Vice President? John Adams
Pinckney’s Treaty Established intentions of friendship between the US and Spain; Defined America’s western boundaries ; Guarantees an American right to the Mississippi River

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