Chapter 5 Vocab

Term Definition
Cell cycle The life cycle of a cell
Mitosis Eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms to nuclei, each has the same number of chromosomes
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm of a cell,
Chromosome Eukaryotic cell: One of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; Prokaryotic: main ring of DNA
Histone type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic not prokaryotic
Chromatin Substance that composes eukaryotic chromosomes; consists of specific proteins DNA and small amount of RNA
Chromatid One of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during mitosis or meiosis
Centromere region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
Telomere region of repeating DNA sequences that forms one of the end points of the DNA segment that makes up a chromosome at tip of chromosome.
Prophase Chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope breaks down, nucleolus disappears, centrosomes and centrioles migrate to other side of the cell
Metaphase Spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
Anaphase Chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
Telophase a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, nuclear membranes start to form, chromosomes begin to uncoil, spindle fibers disassemble.
Growth Factor broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
Apoptosis programmed cell death
Cancer type of disorder of cell growth that results in invasion and destruction of surrounding healthy tissue by abnormal cells
Benign having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
Malignant cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health.
Metastasize to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
Carcinogen substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer
Asexual Reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Binary Fission form of asexual reproduction in single celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Tissue group of similar cells that perform a common function
Organ collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
Organ System two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
Cell Differentiation process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
Stem Cell cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated

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