Chapter 23

Question Answer
What is the Old Regime? The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution.
What are Estates? One of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution—the First Estate consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate, of the nobility; and the Third Estate, of the rest of the population.
Who was Louis XVI? The last king of France in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789.
Who was Maria Antoinette? Louis XVI's queen.
What is Estates-General? Assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.
What was the National Assembly? French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
What was the Tennis Court Oath? Pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
What was the Great Fear? Wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille In 1789.
What was the Legislative Assembly? French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791.
What was the Emigre? Person who leaves their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution.
Who is Napoleon Bonaparte? He was the Emperor of France from 1804 to 1814, and again briefly in 1815. He was born in 1789 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica
What is Coup d'etat? It means ‘blow the state’, sudden seizure of political power in a nation
What is Plebiscite? A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
What is a Lycee? A government run school in France
What is a Concordat? A formal agreement especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs
What was the Napoleonic Code? A uniform set of laws established for France by Napoleon
What was the Battle of Trafalgar? In 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
What is a Blockade? A forcible closing of ports
What was the Continental System? Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy
What was a Guerrila? Member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country
What was the Peninsular War? Conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon’s French troops out of Spain
What was the Scorched Earth Policy? Practice of burning supplies to hinder enemy
What was Waterloo? Napoleon defeated by Britain and Prussia
What was the Hundred Days? The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France
What was the Congress of Vienna? Series of meetings in 1814–1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
Who was Klemens von Metternich? Foreign minister of great power Austria
What was the Balance of Power? A political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
What is Legitimacy? The hereditary right of a monarch to rule

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