Biology Chapter 5 Terms and definitions ALL

Term Definition
cell cycle the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
mitosis the division of the cell nucleus and its contents
cytokinesis the process that divides the cell cytoplasm
chromosome one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
histone group of proteins, DNA wraps around them at regular intervals like beads on a string
chromatin the complex of protein and DNA that makes up the chromosome
chromatid one half of a duplicated chromosome
centromere where sister chromatids are held together, a region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched
telomere the ends of DNA molecules, made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes,
prophase the first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and the centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
metaphase second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase third phase of mitosis during which chromatid separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell
telophase last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membrane starts to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble
growth factor broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
apoptosis programmed cell death
cancer call of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
benign in this type of tumor the cancerous cells are clustered together
malignant in this type of tumor some of the cancerous cells can break away from the main lump
metastasize when cells break away from the tumor
carcinogen substances known to produce or promote the development of cancer
asexual reproduction the production of offspring from a single parent and does not involve doing to do
binary fission asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by which the cell divides into two cells of the same size
tissue groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function
organ groups of tissues that work together to perform a similar function
organ system organs that carry out a similar function
cell differentiation the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
stem cell unique type of body cell that can (1) divide and renew themselves for long periods of time (2) remain undifferentiated in form (3) differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types

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