Question Answer
What are the seven theories of planning practice? RationalIncrementalMixed ScanningAdvocacyTransactiveRadicalCommunicative
What were the primary years of the City Beautiful Movement? Late 1800s and early 1900s
Daniel Burnham was an important figure in which movement? Name three cities in which Burnham contributed to the city plan. City Beautiful MovementChicago, San Francisco, Cleveland, Washington DC (McMillan Plan)
What is a Garden City? A Garden City is self-contained, with a population of 32,000 and a land area of 6,000 acres. A Garden City would house 30,000 people on 1,000 acres, with remaining land and population in farming areas. The Garden City was intended to bring about economic
Who was a major player in the Garden City Movement? Ebenezer Howard: In 1898, Ebenezer Howard wrote To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. This book was later reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-morrow. It explained the principles behind the Garden City. After publishing the book he formed the Gard
What year was the Resettlement Administration formed, by whom, and what did it create? 1935, President Roosevelt, Greenbelt Towns (Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greenbelt, Maryland. Additionally, 99 other new towns were planned.)
What is a cross-sectional survey? Planners typically use a cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey gathers information about a population at a single point in time. For example, planners might conduct a survey on how parents feel about the quality of recreation facilities as of t
What slope is suitable for all types of development? 0-0.5% = no drainage, not suited for development;0.5-1% = no problems, ideal for all types of development;1-3% = slight problems for large commercial areas; acceptable for residential;3-5% = major problems for commercial/industrial/large scale resid
What is the Step-Down Ratio Method ? The step down ratio method is one of the four major population estimate and projection methods (Linear, Symptomatic, Step-Down Ratio, and Cohort Survival).The step-down ratio method is a relatively simple way to estimate or project population. This method
What is Economic Base Analysis? Economic base analysis is one of three major economic analysis methods (economic base, shift-share, and input-output analysis). Economic base analysis looks at basic and non-basic economic activities. Basic activities are those that can be exported, while
How have household sizes changed since the 1970s? the average household size went down from 3.1 in 1970 to 2.59 in 2010.
What is the average per capita method used for? Avg per capita is one of several methods for conducting a fiscal impact analysis (average per capita, adjusted per capita, disaggregated per capita, and dynamic). Fiscal impact analysis (or cost-revenue analysis) is generally used to estimate the costs an
What is considered the best method of protecting and preserving agricultural land?What is the difference between an aerial photograph and a digital orthophoto? Purchase of Development Rights, which is the acquisition of property development rights through voluntary sale by the landowner to a government agency or land trust. The government agency or land trust acquiring development rights typically restricts futu
What is the difference between an aerial photograph and a digital orthophoto? A conventional perspective aerial photograph contains image displacements caused by the tilting of the camera and terrain relief (topography). It does not have a uniform scale. You cannot measure distances on an aerial photograph like you can on a map. It
In 2000, what was the population density of the US (in people per square mile)? How does that compare to the population density in 1900? How does this compare to the density of other countries? 80 people per square mile An increase from 26 people per square mile in 1900 The overall world population density is 120 people per square mile.
What is RLUIPA? The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act passed in 2000 provides protections for the practice of religion in land use contexts. RLUIPA is a law designed to protect religious assemblies and institutions from zoning and historic landmark law
What is a Use Variance? A use variance allows a property to have a use not explicitly allowed under the zoning district regulations. For example, a business owner would like to operate an ice cream shop in an area that is not zoned for restaurant uses. A use variance would allow
What are examples of a Special District? Examples incllude:- historic preservation district – In the case of historic preservation overlays, there may be additional protections to significant architectural elements. Frequently, an architectural review is required in this type of overlay.- fl
When was the first Earth Day? April 22, 1970.
What is the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California? The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was created in 1927 in order to create the Colorado River Aqueduct. It was built between 1933 and 1941 and is owned and operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. It ran a wat
Who is Rachel Carson? Rachel Carson was the author of Silent Spring, which was published in 1962. In the book, Carson examined the dangers of chemical pesticides, such as DDT, on plants, animals, and humans. This book greatly influenced the way people think about the environme
Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, what is this thermal resistance measure called? What is typically recommended as the minimum for residential use? Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-value. This indicates the resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulation. A minimum R-value of 20 is recommended for residential use.
Since 1995, in order for a community to be eligible to receive the funds for housing programs, what are they required to prepare? In order for a community to be eligible to receive the funds for housing programs, they are required to prepare a Consolidated Plan. Beginning in 1995, the HUD required local communities to prepare a Consolidated Plan in order to receive funding from a nu
How is Cumulative Zoning different from Euclidean Zoning? Cumulative zoning is less protective of various land uses than Euclidean zoning. Single-family residential districts are the most exclusive. However, in cumulative zoning, each successive zoning district allows all the uses from the previous zones
What is a Conditional Use Permit? Inside the text of a zoning ordinance, each zoning district lists the permitted and conditional uses. Conditional use permits allow a certain use in a district only when it is compatible with its surroundings. The conditional use permit is also known as a
What is a nonconforming use? A nonconforming use is a property use that existed prior to the adoption of district regulations and is allowed to continue under the "grandfather clause."
What is a zoning variance? A variance is a change in the terms of the zoning regulations due to economic or physical hardship. There are two types of variances: the use variance and the area variance.
What are some of the differences between men and women that are relevant to planning? * There is a larger portion of women over the age of 65 than men;* There is a significant wage gap between men and women. According to a 1999 study, full-time white women wage and salary workers earned 75.7 cents for each dollar earned by a white man;
What is a design charrette? A design charrette is an intensive collaborative effort that brings together citizens, stakeholders, and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area. A charrette may be held over one or more days. This is an effective technique for quickly
What is the Delphi Method? The Delphi Method is a structured process of public participation with the intent of coming to a consensus decision. The method was created in 1944 for the U.S. Army Air Force. A panel of selected, informed citizens and stakeholders are asked to complete
What is the Nominal Group Technique? The Nominal Group Technique is a group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making that can be used for groups of any size that want to come to a decision by vote. This allows for everyone's opinions to be considered
What is the Facilitation method in public participation? Facilitation uses a person who does not have a direct stake in the outcome of a meeting to help groups that disagree work together to solve complex problems and come to a consensus. The facilitator is typically a volunteer from the community who is respec
What is the Mediation method in public process? Mediation is a method in which a neutral third party facilitates discussion in a structured multi-stage process to help parties reach a satisfactory agreement. The mediator assists the parties in identifying and articulating their interests and priorities
What is a Public Hearing? A public hearing is typically associated with the Planning Commission, City Council, or other governing bodies. These meetings allow formal citizen input at the end of a planning process. Public hearings are typically mandated by law. Hearings are typical
What is a Visual Preference Survey? A visual preference survey is a technique that can be used to assist citizens in evaluating physical images of natural and built environments. Citizens are asked to view and evaluate a wide variety of pictures depicting houses, sites, building styles, str
What are some key principles planners should follow in order to build consensus? Design the process to fit the stakeholders' needs;Include all appropriate special interest groups;Identify shared common interests;Provide all stakeholders with information that is credible;Use professional facilitators where appropriate;Validat
What are the purposes of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964? Eliminate povertyExpand educational opportunitiesIncrease the safety net for the poor and unemployedTend to health and financial needs of the elderly
What are the 3 C's? * Coalition Building (selectively bring together groups supportive of a certain position)* Consensus Building (bring together a diverse group of stakeholders to agree upon a solution, may require compromise)* Conflict Resolution (often uses a facilita
Advocacy Planning is associated closely with Paul Davidoff and Saul Alinsky. Which of the following was the significant element of the advocacy movement? A. Assisted single women with children to find employmentB. Cause social planning to move from ba B. Caused social planning to move from back room negotiations into the public forum
How the Other Half Lives How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis, published in 1890. This book resulted in housing reform in New York City.
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform by Ebenezer Howard, published in 1898. This book initiated the Garden City movement.
1st comprehensive plan The first comprehensive plan was developed in Cincinnati in 1925, under the direction of Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe. The Cincinnati Plan focused on infrastructure projects and called for planning to be controlled by a citizen city planning commissi
1st real attempt at a garden City Radburn, New Jersey. Planned community inspired by Howard's Garden City concept and designed by Stein and Wright. A forerunner of the New Deal's Greenbelt towns. Only one block was fully built, and it is now a very popular town with very low housing turno
Tennessee Valley Authority 1933 Tennessee Valley Authority created to provide for unified and multipurpose rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Tennessee Valley, America's most famous experiment in river-basin planning. Senator George Norris of Nebraska fathered idea, and David
Resettlement Administration 1935, formed by President Roosevelt to carry out experiments in population resettlement and land reform. agency responsible for the New Towns program. Greenbelt towns. Greendale WI, Greenhills OH, Greenbelt MD
GI Bill In 1944, the Serviceman's Readjustment Act, commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
Federal Aid Highway Act 1956 Congress passes multibillion dollar Federal Aid Highway Act to create interstate highway system linking all state capitals and most cities of 50,000 population or more. Landmark Laws Economic Development
Munn v. Illinois; U.S. Supreme Court Fourteenth Amendment: The Court found that a state law regulating pricing did not constitute a taking and violation of due process in this 1876 case. The Court established the principle of public regulation of private businesses in the public interest. Th
Mugler v. Kansas Fourteenth Amendment (1887)A Kansas law prohibited the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquor. Mugler was arrested for making and selling beer. The Kansas prohibition does not infringe on Fourteenth Amendment rights. Though Mugler has an abstrac
United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Company; U.S. Supreme Court Fifth Amendment and Historic Preservation: The Court ruled that the acquisition of the national battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose in 1896. This was the first significant legal case dealing with historic preservation.
Welch v. Swasey (214 U.S. 91) Zoning: The Court established the right of municipalities to regulate building height with this 1909 case. (Welch v. Swasey)
Eubank v. City of Richmond; U.S. Supreme Court Zoning: The Court first approved the use of setback regulations, although it overturned the setbacks in this 1912 case. (Eubank v. City of Richmond)
Hadacheck v. Sebastian; U.S. Supreme Court Zoning: The Court first approved the regulation of the location of land uses in this 1915 case.
Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon; U.S. Supreme Court 5th Amendment and Takings (1922):Pennsylvania Coal Co entered agreement with HJ Mahon in 1878 to gain full rights to mine coal located beneath his property-first takings ruling, defined a taking under 5th Amendment-court found if a regulation goes too far
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.; U.S. Supreme Court Zoning: Amber Realty Company (Appellee) challenged the enforcement of a zoning ordinance on the ground that the enforcement would constitute an unconstitutional taking by devaluing his land in this 1926 case. The ordinance must find its justification in
Nectow v. City of Cambridge; U.S. Supreme Court 14th Amendment / Zoning (1928):Plaintiff was planning on selling land. City of Cambridge zoned it as residential. Potential buyer of land backed out. Plaintiffs alleged that the zoning ordinance was a violation of the due process and equal protection clau
Who is the father of regional planning? Patrick Geddes
What years were WWI? 1914-1918
What was the first garden city effort? Sunnyside Gardens, NY, 1922
Who was the first president of the ACIP? Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., 1917
What is the Standard City Planning Enabling Act? In 1928, the U.S. Department of Commerce, under Secretary Herbert Hoover, released the Standard City Planning Enabling Act. The Act covered the organization and power of the planning commission, which was directed to prepare and adopt a "master plan"
What was the first real attempt at a Garden City? Radburn, New Jersey. Planned community designed by Stein and Wright. A forerunner of the New Deal's Greenbelt towns. Only one block was fully built, and it is now a very popular town with very low housing turnover. 1928
Catherine Bauer Wurster was influential in the passage of which Housing Act? A founder of American housing policy, exec secretary of the Regional Planning Assoc of America, wrote Modern Housing, influential in Housing Act of 1937 (Wagner-Steagall) $500 million in loans for low-cost housing. Tied slum clearance to public housing
What did the US Housing Act of 1954 require? Largest impetus for comprehensive planning, required cities to develop comprehensive plans and provided funding for planning under Section 701. led to creation of plans for the purpose of acquiring federal funds rather than to truly plan for communities.
What did the Federal Aid Highway Act create? 1956 Congress passes multibillion dollar Federal Aid Highway Act to create interstate highway system linking all state capitals and most cities of 50,000 population or more. Landmark Laws Economic Development
What did Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" program include? Creation of Department o Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in 1965
Comprehensive plans shifted to what focus in the 1970's and 80's? During the 1970s and 1980s, comprehensive plans shifted to more of a social focus. The emphasis moved to concerns of equity, neighborhood preservation, affordable housing, environmental protection, and historic preservation.
what is tax increment financing? Tax increment financing uses bonds secured by the increment in property taxes which results from increases in property values due to specific improvements.

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