Absolutism and Cons France and England

Question Answer
When a state has a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force in a country. Sovereignty
A system where a monarch wields supreme power and claims to have to answer only to God. Absolutism
A balance between governmental powers and the rights of a government's subjects. Constitutionalism
The belief that a King is God's chosen instrument on Earth and answerable to God alone Divine Right of Kings.
A system of republican government, used to inaccurately characterize the Protectorate under Cromwell. Commonwealth
A government that derives authority from the people. Republican Government
A system central to feudalism in which people worked on a lord's lands in exchange for protection. Serfdom
A King with limited powers. Administrative Monarch
The first King of the Bourbon dynasty who converted to Catholicism to become King of France. Henry IV
Henry IV's chief minister who helped him strongly develop state power. The Duke of Sully
An annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices, introduced by Henry IV. Paulette
A French monarch strongly influenced by a certain Cardinal, who led his nation through the Thirty Years War. Louis XIII
The aforementioned Cardinal who dominated Louis XIII's royal council and helped consolidate royal power. Also founded the Academie Francaise. Cardinal Richelieu
An office of royal commissioners begun under Richelieu Intendants
Judicial nobility Nobility of the Robe
A Huguenot stronghold besieged by Catholic forces under Louis XIII between 1627 and 1628. La Rochelle
The organization organized to systematize rules for the French language. Academie francaise
The embodiment of French absolutism, and longest-serving European monarch, who revoked the Edict of Nantes Louis XIV (The Sun King)
A series of nobility uprisings between 1648 and 1653 over tax increases proposed by Mazarin and Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria. The Fronde
A path between the Atlantic and the French Mediterranean. Canal des Deux Mers
The de facto capital of France during the 18th century and home of an opulent palace. Versailles
Louis XIV's finance minister who sought to make France economically self-sufficient. Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Government policies to regulate a nation's economic activities Mercantilism
Major French explorers of the New World who traveled up the Mississippi River and explored the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle, Marquette, Joliet
A religious revival particularly strong in France that emphasized a return to the early days of Christianity and accepted predestination. Jansenism
An action performed by Louis XIV which effectively eliminated any remaining traces of Protestantism in France. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
An organization formed under Louis XIV's reign to promote French scientific research. French Academy of Sciences
A famous comedic French playwright, author of works like "Tartuffe" and "The Imaginary Invalid." Moliere
Secretary of war under Louis XIV who worked to greatly expand the size of the French army. Marquis de Louvois
A war in the 1670s conducted by Louis XIV which ended with France gaining territory in Franche-Comte and many Flemish towns. Dutch War (1672-1678)
The second of Louis XIV's three wars, it featured France arrayed against a strong alliance determined to curtail Louis ambitions and force him to give up Alsace and Lorraine. Nine Years' War
A European-led coalition determined to stop Louis XIV, led by luminaries such as King William III and Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. The Grand Alliance
The treaty that ended the Nine Years' War and forced Louis to return Lorraine. Treaty of Ryswick
A war sparked by Louis Charles II's decision to bequeath the Spanish empire to Philip of Anjou, who would have also inherited the Spanish empire. War of Spanish Succession
A sad, strange little King of Spain with many problems who touched off the War of Spanish Succession following his death. Charles II
The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession. Treaty of Utrecht
The last Tudor monarch of England, successor to Elizabeth I. James I
One branch of England's bicameral parliament that controlled taxation and was originally filled with knights and burgesses. House of Commons
A clandestine collusion conjured up by a cadre of Catholics led by Guy Fawkes to blow up Parliament Gunpowder Plot
The son of James I whose supposed sympathies to Catholicism and baiting of the House of Commons led to his being overthrown from the English throne. Charles I
Thought not the Magna Carta, this document set out to define the rights of English subjects, such as Parliament's authority to tax. Petition of Right (1628)
The period between 1629 and 1640 when Charles I ruled without Parliament's consent or input. Personal Rule
Strong religiously conservative Protestants in England who sought to eliminate Roman Catholic elements from the Anglican Church. Puritans
A clergyman who sought to impose complex Catholic-influenced rituals on the Church of England, raising some ire. Archbishop William Laud
Practitioners of a religion created by John Knox. Scottish Presbyterians
The Parliament that served between 1640 and 1660 and did much to limit Charles I's power. Long Parliament
A list of grievances presented to Charles I from the English parliament in 1641 Grand Remonstrance
A conflict between Parliamentary and Royalist forces that ended with a victory for the Parliamentarians. English Civil War
Another name for the period between Charles I's execution and Charles II's ascension to the throne. Interregnum
Leader of the Parliamentary forces and Lord Protector of England. Oliver Cromwell
The Parliamentarian military forces organized by Thomas Fairfax and Cromwell. New Model Army
A name given to the ostensibly republican government of Cromwell. Protectorate
The targeted arrest of numerous members of Parliament who had not fully supported the New Model Army. Pride's Purge
The name given to the smaller Parliament after Pride's Purge that ordered Charles I's execution. Rump Parliament
The first written and codified constitution of England and the English-speaking world, composed in 1653. Instrument of Government
The site of a Cromwell-ordered massacre of rebelling Irish Catholics. Drogheda
Laws requiring that English goods be transported on English ships. Navigation Acts
The return of a king to the Throne of England and the period shortly thereafter. The Restoration
The King who was restored. Charles II
A group containing such members as Buckingham and Clifford that acted as liaisons between Charles II and Parliament. "The Cabal" Cabinet Government
A series of laws enacted by Parliament to establish supremacy of the Anglican Church in England. Clarendon Code
A law passed by Parliament strengthening the rule that people unlawfully detained cannot be prosecuted by a court of law. Habeas Corpus Act
An attempt by Charles II to grant liberty of religion to Protestant nonconformists in England. Royal Declaration of Indulgence
A law passed by Parliament in place of the Declaration of Indulgence requiring public office holders to swear an oath of loyalty to the Anglican Church. Test Act
The conflict between Parliamentarians over Charles II's choice as a successor Exclusion Crisis
A fake conspiracy devised by Titus Oakes claiming that Catholics sought to execute Charles II. Popish Plot
Two really bad days for England. Great Plague of London and Great Fire of London
Trade wars conducted between England and a Lowland country. Anglo-Dutch Wars
An English joint-stock company that enjoyed a great deal of trade with primarily China and India. British East India Company
The successor to Charles II. (Hint: NOT Charles III.) James II
A 1685 attempt to overthrow James II, ended by the Battle of Sedgemoor. Monmouth Rebellion
James II's attempt to grant Catholics in England freedom of religion. Declaration of Indulgence.
The bloodless deposition of James II Glorious Revolution 1688
A document written by Parliament following the Glorious Revolution enumerating certain guarantees for all English citizens. Bill of Rights (1689)
A philosophical work by Thomas Hobbes justifying Absolutism. Leviathan
A treatise by Locke calling for a society based on natural rights. Two Treatises of Government
A Law passed in 1648 which gave freedom of practice to Protestant nonconformists (i.e Baptists) but not Catholics. Act of Toleration
A series of uprisings determined to restore James II to the English throne. Jacobite Rebellions
The system established in 1694 to act like the English government's banker. Bank of England
A coalition headed in part by William of Orange against Louis XIV. Grand Alliance
A law passed by Parliament that sought to determine Protestant succession to the English throne. Act of Succession (1707)
Daughter of James II who followed William III on the throne. Queen Anne
A famous general who fought during the War of Spanish Succession and won victories for England at Oudenarde and Malplaquet. John Churchill (Duke of Marlborough)
A famous battle of the Spanish Succession where the Duke of Marlborough prevented Louis XIV from taking Vienna. Blenheim
An Act passed in 1700 that helped clarify rules of succession. Act of Settlement
The Royal House who ascended to the English throne following the Act of Settlement. The Georges were members of it. Hanover
Considered to be England's first prime minister. He led the country during the War of Spanish Succession. Sir Robert Walpole

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